Java Basics for Beginners to Learn Java Programming

Do you know why Java is the go-to programming language for both seasoned IT professionals and computer science graduates?

It is because of its unique capability to work equally well on multiple operating systems, its portability, and its unbeatable stability.

Originally called Oak, Java was in fact an incidental discovery by James Gosling. He was working at Sun Labs in the year 1992 and was trying to build a set-top box with his team. Little did he know that while cleaning up C++, he will wind up a brand-new runtime and language.

There are over 9 million Java programmers in this world, and the average salary of a developer is approximately $83,975. It ranks second in terms of global popularity after C. So, if you’re a software developer who has a stronghold on the basics of Python and other programming languages like C++, then learning the basics of Java will be easy for you.

To help you get started with mastering the language quickly, we’ve prepared a comprehensive guide for you to read. Take a look.

Java Syntax

As you must already know, every programming language comes with its own set of rules and regulations. The compiler for the language checks your code for syntax rules and then validates it. Furthermore, Java also has certain components and constructs that make it easy for a programmer to write flawless programs.

1. Java Conventions

While writing a program in Java, there are some conventions that a programmer just follow:

  • Class Name: The first letter of the name of every class in Java must be written in uppercase. For example: a class subject will be named “Subject” as per the Java conventions. If the name of the class is made up of multiple words, then the letter of every first word will be in uppercase.
  • Method Name: Just like all class names in Java begin with an uppercase, all the method names begin with a lowercase. Furthermore, if the method name is made up of a combination of several names, then the first letter of every inner word will be in uppercase.
  • Program File Name: Every file name in the Java program must end with the “.Java” extension.
  • Case Sensitivity: Java is a case-sensitive programming language. Therefore, the words “ Bye” and “ bye” will hold two different meanings.
  • Main Method: It is compulsory for every Java program to have an execution starting point which is known as the main method.
2. Java Identifiers

Various components of a Java program like methods, variables, and classes are given unique names called an identifier. You must follow the below-mentioned rules to assign a name to any of the above-listed components:

  • As a thumb rule, every identifier in Java must either begin with the letters (a-z/A-Z) or a currency character ($) or an underscore character (_).
  • The Java reserved keyword and the identifier cannot share the same name.
  • An identifier can be written with any character combination beyond its first character.
  • In Java, identifiers are case-sensitive.
3. Java Modifiers

Next up in our list of basics of Java is Java modifiers. There exist two modifiers types in Java:

  • Access Modifiers: There are four types of access modifiers in Java that every programmer must know. These include – default, public, private, and protected. They are used by programmers to define program accessibility.
  • Non-Access Modifiers: Along with access modifiers, Java also supports non-access modifiers like strictfp, final, and abstract.
4. Data Types

As you already know, variables are meant to hold certain types of values. It can be a numerical value or a character or a string. These values are known as the data type of the variable. There are two types of data types in Java – Primitive and Non-Primitive.

Primitive data types are further divided into Boolean and Numerical data types. The Numerical data types are made of characters and integrals. On the other hand, the non-primitive data types consist of arrays and strings.

5. Java Variables

Java currently supports three variable types:

  • Classic: These are static variables that can be accessed by the programmer without any object.
  • Instance: These are non-static variables that can only be accessed with an object.
  • Local Variables: These variables can only be accessed within specific blocks.
6. Keywords

Java defines a list of keywords that cannot be used as identifier names or variables.

7. Operators

Operators are a type of symbol that are used by a programmer to perform certain mathematical and logical operations on either identifiers or variables. These special identifiers or variables are called Operands.

8. Loops

As with other programming languages like C++ and Python, loops are used to reiterate the code a specific number of times till the condition set by the programmer is fulfilled. The loop constructs available in Java are – Enhanced for Loop, for each(since Java 8), for loop, do-while loop, and while loop.

Java Arrays

Arrays are a sequential data structure that are meant to hold certain data elements. They are also a crucial part of other programming languages like C++ and Python basics. Currently, Java supports two types of arrays:

  • Single-dimensional: This array contains the same type of data elements and you can access it directly by using the array name.
  • Multi-dimensional: In this array type, the data elements are arranged in a matrix form as columns and rows.
Java Class

One of the most crucial things to learn while polishing your basics of Java is class and OOPS in Java. A Java class consists of certain data variables and methods that can operate on these variables.

Java Interfaces and Packages

A collection of files and method signatures is called an interface in Java. It does not have the execution of these methods. Therefore, a class in Java first needs to inherit the interface and only then can it implement the methods defined in it. Furthermore, classes that have similar functionality can also be grouped together to form a package in Java.


With the above-mentioned basics of Java on your fingertips, you too can begin coding in this programming language! There’s no doubt that it pays you a handsome salary to learn Java. Hence, to make the most out of IT lucrative job opportunities, acquiring Java skill is a must!